Nature contents: 09 February 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 542 Issue 7640
This Week  
Academics must protest against Trump’s travel ban — but they should do so productively
Boycotting US conferences will not help scientists from any country.
The head of Britain’s powerful new funding body deserves a chance
Mark Walport has the experience needed to take on the top job in UK science.
The long reach of the monster plant
Carnivorous plants have fascinated writers and botanists alike.
World View  
Science, lies and video-taped experiments
Too many researchers make up or massage their data, says Timothy D. Clark. Only stringent demands for proof can stop them.
Seven Days  
Mars’s frozen pole, Sweden’s climate plan and a stem-cell trial in Japan
The week in science: 3–9 February 2017.
Research Highlights  
Robotics: A robot that flies like a bat | Genomics: Early farmers in Asia stayed local | Astronomy: A leisurely way to visit the stars | Evolution: Intrepid invaders adapt fast | Chemistry: The promise of 1D boron chains | Biotechnology: Gene therapy restores hearing | Ecology: Parrotfish loss drives reef decline | Evolution: In selection, size isn't everything
News in Focus
Deadly new wheat disease threatens Europe’s crops
Researchers caution that stem rust may have returned to world’s largest wheat-producing region.
Shaoni Bhattacharya
  LIGO’s underdog cousin ready to enhance gravitational-wave hunt
It missed the historic discovery, but the Virgo lab in Italy is now primed to extend LIGO’s reach and precision.
Davide Castelvecchi
Treaty to stop biopiracy threatens to delay flu vaccines
Industry and public-health experts concerned about ramifications of Nagoya Protocol.
Daniel Cressey
  US child-health study rises from ashes of high-profile failure
The government’s cancelled National Children’s Study has a successor that may sidestep earlier challenges.
Rachel Cernansky
Show of shipwrecked treasures raises scientists’ ire
Archaeologists worry that a museum exhibition will encourage exploitation of priceless historical sites.
Traci Watson
  Physicists propose football-pitch-sized quantum computer
Blueprint outlines ambitious scheme to solve uncrackable problems using existing technology.
Elizabeth Gibney
Arctic 2.0: What happens after all the ice goes?
Researchers look into the future of the far North for clues to save species and maybe even bring back sea ice.
Julia Rosen
Secrets of life in a spoonful of blood
The intricate development of the fetus is yielding its long-held secrets to state-of-the-art molecular technologies that can make use of the mother's blood.
Claire Ainsworth
Nature Podcast: 09 February 2017
This week, free-floating DNA in cancers, an ancient relative of molluscs and can the Arctic’s ice be regrown?
The 5th World Conference on Research Integrity will be held from May 28 – 31, 2017 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The conference will be organized around the interlinked themes of transparency and accountability. The program features keynotes on core topics, 100+ oral presentations and interactive workshops. We are looking forward to welcoming researchers, institutional leaders, research administrators, funders, editors, publishers and others from all over the world.
Catch wave power in floating nets
Zhong Lin Wang proposes a radically different way to harvest renewable energy from the ocean using nanogenerator networks.
Zhong Lin Wang
Books and Arts  
Sustainability: Growing pains
Richard B. Norgaard is troubled by the incrementalism of Jeffrey Sachs's modest new plan for the US economy.
Richard B. Norgaard
Medical research: The vaccine chronicles
Ewen Callaway extols a study on the creation of a cell line key to combating rubella.
Ewen Callaway
Physics: A cosmos in the lab
Andreas Albrecht ponders a study of the physicists who grapple with the origins of the Universe.
Andreas Albrecht
United States: Learn from Canada's dark age of science
Alana Westwood, Kathleen Walsh, Katie Gibbs
  Communication: Science censorship is a global issue
Euan G. Ritchie, Don A. Driscoll, Martine Maron
Education: Restore evolution to Turkey's curriculum
Cagatay Tavsanoglu
  Presentations: Keynote speakers must try harder
Judy Ford
Neonatology: Promote prestigious paediatric centres
Hanady Kader
Oliver Smithies (1925–2017)
Nobel-winning inventor of ways to modify genes.
Raju Kucherlapati
Genomics: Keen insights from quinoa
Technological advances have allowed scientists to sequence the complex quinoa genome. This highlights the ongoing expansion of genomics beyond major crops to other plants that have relevance for global food security.
Systems neuroscience: Diversity in sight
A systematic analysis of bipolar cells, which act as a central signalling conduit in the retina, reveals that the neurons' diverse responses to light are generated largely by feedback from neighbouring amacrine cells.
Physiology: Gut feeling for food choice
One effect of weight-loss surgery is a change in food preferences. An analysis in rats shows that this is caused by altered nutrient signals in the intestine. These activate the vagus nerve to increase signalling in the brain by the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Physiology: An atypical switch for metabolism and ageing
The enzyme S6K1 phosphorylates the enzyme glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase to modulate metabolic activity and lifespan, revealing an atypical role for this synthetase as a target of a key metabolic signalling pathway.
Inhibition decorrelates visual feature representations in the inner retina
The functional diversity of bipolar cells, which split visual inputs into different excitatory channels within the retina, arises from centre–surround interactions in their receptive fields that tune both spatial and temporal signalling.
The genome of Chenopodium quinoa OPEN
Constructing a reference genome for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) allows for genetic diversity during the evolution of sub-genomes in quinoa to be characterized and markers that may be used to develop sweet commercial varieties are identified.
Onset of the aerobic nitrogen cycle during the Great Oxidation Event
Nitrogen isotope data from sediments deposited during the earliest stage of the Great Oxidation Event show evidence for the emergence of a pervasive aerobic marine nitrogen cycle.
Primordial helium entrained by the hottest mantle plumes
Analysis of helium isotope ratios in volcanic hotspot lavas suggests that hotter, more buoyant plumes upwelling from the deep mantle entrain high-3He/4He material, unlike cooler, less buoyant plumes, implying the existence of a dense, relatively undisturbed primordial reservoir in the deep mantle.
Photovoltage field-effect transistors
A photovoltage field-effect transistor is demonstrated that is very sensitive to infrared light and has high gain.
Ancestral morphology of crown-group molluscs revealed by a new Ordovician stem aculiferan
Presence of a radula in Calvapilosa kroegeri confirms the molluscan affinity of sachitids, and the single shell plate reveals the ancestral condition for all crown molluscs and early evolution of the multi-plated body plan characteristic of Aculifera.
Synthetic vulnerabilities of mesenchymal subpopulations in pancreatic cancer
Depletion of Smarcb1 activates the Myc network of signalling cascades, increasing protein metabolism and activation of survival pathways allowing highly aggressive Kras-independent pancreatic cancer cells to develop.
Single-cell spatial reconstruction reveals global division of labour in the mammalian liver
Single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization is performed to identify several landmark genes in the liver and their level of expression in single-cell RNA sequencing is used to spatially reconstruct the zonation of all liver genes.
Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity
Circular extrachromosomal DNA is found in nearly half of human cancers of a wide variety of histologic types, increasing the copy number of driver oncogenes and intratumoral heterogeneity more effectively than chromosomal amplification and contributing to tumor evolution.
Synthetic essentiality of chromatin remodelling factor CHD1 in PTEN-deficient cancer
The gene CHD1 is synthetic essential in PTEN-deficient prostate and breast cancers.
C. elegans neurons jettison protein aggregates and mitochondria under neurotoxic stress
Adult neurons from Caenorhabditis elegans can extrude large membrane-surrounded vesicles, known as exophers, containing protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles that threaten neuronal homeostasis.
EPRS is a critical mTORC1–S6K1 effector that influences adiposity in mice
Glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS) is a downstream effector of the mTORC1–S6K1 signalling axis and contributes to adiposity and ageing in mice.
Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination
Corrigendum: SRA- and SET-domain-containing proteins link RNA polymerase V occupancy to DNA methylation
News and Views  
Climate science: Ocean circulation drove increase in CO2 uptake
Sara E. Mikaloff Fletcher
Astroparticle physics: Dark matter remains elusive
Xiangdong Ji
Cognitive neuroscience: In search of lost time
Noah P. Young, Karl Deisseroth
It's a sobering thought: all the matter that has ever been detected accounts for a mere 4.9% of the Universe.
Most of the cosmos is the dark universe, a mix of dark matter and dark energy. Both have so far proved impenetrable puzzles, but physicists young and old are intent on changing that.
Cell biology: Organelle formation from scratch
Ewald H. Hettema, Stephen J. Gould
Regenerative medicine: Interspecies pancreas transplants
Qiao Zhou
Palaeontology: Tiny fossils in the animal family tree
Imran A. Rahman
Astronomy: Intermediate-mass black hole found
Kayhan Gültekin
Inflammation, metaflammation and immunometabolic disorders
The delicate balance between the immune system and metabolism, and its implications for obesity and metabolic disease are explored.
Gökhan S. Hotamisligil
Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height
Data from over 700,000 individuals reveal the identity of 83 sequence variants that affect human height, implicating new candidate genes and pathways as being involved in growth.
Eirini Marouli, Mariaelisa Graff, Carolina Medina-Gomez et al.
Interspecies organogenesis generates autologous functional islets
The authors inject mouse pluripotent stem cells into pancreatogenesis-disabled rat blastocysts and thereby generate rats with mouse pancreata from which the islets, when transplanted into mice, can provide a long-term cure for symptoms of diabetes, without continuous immunosuppression.
Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Hideyuki Sato, Megumi Kato-Itoh et al.
An Argonaute phosphorylation cycle promotes microRNA-mediated silencing
The application of genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screening coupled with a fluorescent reporter to interrogate the microRNA pathway reveals that continual transient phosphorylation of Argonaute 2 is required to maintain the global efficiency of microRNA-mediated repression.
Ryan J. Golden, Beibei Chen, Tuo Li et al.
Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China)
Saccorhytus coronarius are millimetric fossils from the early Cambrian period in China that are proposed to represent the most basal known deuterostomes.
Jian Han, Simon Conway Morris, Qiang Ou et al.
Recent increase in oceanic carbon uptake driven by weaker upper-ocean overturning
Modelling of ocean carbon uptake for the 1980s to the 2000s shows that stronger upper-ocean overturning caused less carbon to be absorbed by the oceans in the 1990s, but that as the overturning circulation weakens more carbon is now being absorbed.
Tim DeVries, Mark Holzer, Francois Primeau
The ligand Sas and its receptor PTP10D drive tumour-suppressive cell competition
Wild-type Drosophila epithelial cells outcompete proto-oncogenic cells through translocation of the ligand Sas to the wild-type–tumour cell interface, where it binds the PTP10D receptor of the tumour cell, initiating pro-apoptotic signalling.
Masatoshi Yamamoto, Shizue Ohsawa, Kei Kunimasa et al.
Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons
Excitations to Rydberg states in a gas of ultracold atoms are used to produce a robust, nonlinear phase shift of exactly π/2 between two photons, which is protected against variations in experimental parameters by a symmetry of the system.
Jeff D. Thompson, Travis L. Nicholson, Qi-Yu Liang et al.
Ecosystem restoration strengthens pollination network resilience and function
Removal of invasive exotic shrubs from mountaintop communities increased the number of pollinators and positively altered pollinator behaviour, which enhanced native fruit production, indicating that the degradation of ecosystem functions is partly reversible.
Christopher N. Kaiser-Bunbury, James Mougal, Andrew E. Whittington et al.
Gamma oscillations organize top-down signalling to hypothalamus and enable food seeking
Coordinated gamma oscillations in the lateral hypothalamus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex are shown to drive food-seeking behaviour in mice independently of nutritional need and to organize firing of feeding behaviour-related hypothalamic neurons.
Marta Carus-Cadavieco, Maria Gorbati, Li Ye et al.
An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae
The properties of pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae suggest that an intermediate-mass black hole is hidden in the cluster’s gas-starved central cavity.
Bülent Kızıltan, Holger Baumgardt, Abraham Loeb
Weak synchronization and large-scale collective oscillation in dense bacterial suspensions
Cells in dense bacterial suspensions can self-organize into highly robust collective oscillatory motion, while individual cells move in an erratic manner; their interaction is modelled to reveal a weak synchronization mechanism.
Chong Chen, Song Liu, Xia-qing Shi et al.
Vigorous lateral export of the meltwater outflow from beneath an Antarctic ice shelf
The mechanism producing Antarctic meltwater at depth is elucidated and modelled.
Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, Alexander Forryan, Pierre Dutrieux et al.
New CRISPR–Cas systems from uncultivated microbes
Using a metagenomic approach, three types of CRISPR–Cas systems have been discovered in uncultivated bacterial and archaeal hosts from a variety of different environments.
David Burstein, Lucas B. Harrington, Steven C. Strutt et al.
Feedback control of AHR signalling regulates intestinal immunity
Cytochrome P4501 enzymes have a role in the regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand levels in the gut, affecting innate lymphoid and TH17 cell responses.
Chris Schiering, Emma Wincent, Amina Metidji et al.
Newly born peroxisomes are a hybrid of mitochondrial and ER-derived pre-peroxisomes
Peroxisomes—tiny intracellular organelles that contain metabolic enzymes—are generated in mammalian cells by the fusion of structures that arise from both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.
Ayumu Sugiura, Sevan Mattie, Julien Prudent et al.
Molecular mechanism for the regulation of yeast separase by securin
The crystal structure of yeast separase in complex with its inhibitor securin sheds light on the mechanism of inhibition, in which securin inhibits separase by inserting a short segment into the active site.
Shukun Luo, Liang Tong
Corrigendum: Linking high harmonics from gases and solids
G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré et al.
Corrigendum: Structural basis of N6-adenosine methylation by the METTL3–METTL14 complex
Xiang Wang, Jing Feng, Yuan Xue et al.
Addendum: The rewards of restraint in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ant colonies
Deborah M. Gordon
Careers & Jobs
Relationships: Sweethearts in science
Amber Dance
Career Briefs  
Salary: Postdoc penalty
Jobs: Seeking STEM skills
Fermi's zookeepers
Discretion is the better part of valour.
David Gullen


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